Did they count the fifteen books as one book or fifteen? (49) Aristarchus virtually invented modern astronomy while living in the city. Alexandria hosted the tomb of Alexander the Great Alexandria was the intellectual capital of the world and famous for its extensive library, which in the 3rd century BC was said to contain 500,000 volumes. Alexander: The Conqueror. Allen Lane, 1973; Penguin, 1994, 2004. Judaism and Hellenism in Antiquity. —. He has lectured widely on the history and archaeology of ancient Macedonia, and has chaired the Lecture Program Committee of the Archaeological Institute of America, for which he has been an annual lecturer since 1975. Just as its famous Pharos Lighthouse was a welcome sight for weary travelers, Alexandria acted as a beacon for merchants, curious tourists, religious prophets, and most importantly, the finest intellectual minds of the times. Regina Press, 1995. NY: Overlook Press, 2004. Periplus Publishing, 1998. 4:30 pm: For a Better Dialog Between the West and Muslims Hammond, N. G. L. The Macedonian State: Origins, Institutions, and History. Room 20, Barrows Hall, University of California Berkeley In Theocritus' idyll, The Festival of Adonis, Alexandria is said to be exhausting: One can also read about a man who had killed a cat and before the day was over, was dead and his house burnt to the ground. Travels in Asia and Africa. Her current project is on beauty and ugliness in ancient Greece. He is the author of historical works on libraries and the Orthodox Church and monasteries and is researching a book on the history of the Nicene Creed and on the history and lore of the camel. Instead, he began to look at moral issues, and to the well-being of his soul. Interesting Links: Classical Greece and the Birth of Western Art. Alexandria was an entity onto itself, an intellectual powerhouse, which was quite different from any other city of its time. Egyptology Online In Alexandria, sculptors and architects had good business. Canfora, Luciano. The American Research Center in Egypt ARCE) Northern California Chapter has a page with summaries of lectures delivered at its membership meetings, as well as links to selected Egypt websites. (37) Fifteen talents was nothing to such a wealthy man; Ptolemy and his descendants were to spend much more attracting and keeping the scholars who graced the halls of their cultural establishments. Hellenistic monarchs such as the Ptolemies supported trade by projects like the famous Lighthouse of Alexandria. Alexander the Great had a dream as he slept one night,(3) a vision in which he learned the location for his new megalopolis,(4) a capital for his empire. Lycophron's most famous was a two thousand line epic called Alexandra, which had multiple allusions to mythological characters and events. His name was Lycophron. Arrian, The Campaigns of Alexander. Forster, E. M. Alexandria, A History and A Guide. Hellenistic monarchs like Ptolemy were very greedy and ruthless. A "(9) This concept of cosmopolitan developed side-by-side with the Macedonian rulers. Faces of Power: Alexander’s Image and Hellenistic Politics. But we do know that men like Aristophanes of Byzantium worked there and spent his life reading and re-reading every book in the library. Mahfouz, Naguib. 45) and the Yale (P. Yale II) collections. Director of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina Since so much prosperity grew from his businesses, he was rich enough to have one of the finest mercenary armies of the time and a fleet that was hard to surpass. He has held distinguished visiting professorships at the University of Washington, Trinity University, and Carleton College, and has been a visiting professor and special research fellow at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. De Selincourt, Aubrey (transl). Press, 2009. Alexandria has been one of the most important cities throughout history. Collected Poems. Co-sponsored with the Commonwealth Club Member-led Forum on the Humanities. Jewish Culture in Alexandria: The Hebrew Bible in Greek Justin. As Alexander’s Empire dissolved and the Ptolemies established their control over Egypt and a few outlying areas, they were faced with many daunting challenges. He is the author of historical works on libraries and the Orthodox Church and monasteries and is researching a book on the history of the Nicene Creed and on the history and lore of the camel. On his way to visit the temple of the god Amoun, Alexander stopped at Rhacotis on the Egyptian Mediterranean coast. Empereur, Jean-Yves. The Epic Story of the Young Warrior King. Instead, the monarchs preferred to be entertained and immortalized by poetry. Koine (koy•NAY),the popular spoken language used in Hellenistic cities, was the direct result of cultural blending. It was once the center of the Hellenistic Empire, and the hub of scholarship and commerce in the ancient world. Out of their work came the canonization of books, the first bibliographies, and biographies. William Greenwalt (Santa Clara University Classics) Typically, historians start the Hellenistic Age with the death of Alexander, whose empire spread from India to Africa, in 323 B.C.It follows the Classical Age and precedes the incorporation of the Greek empire within the Roman empire in 146 B.C. Ungaretti, Giuseppe. Cavafy’s Alexandria. Transl. The Great Altar built in the 2nd century BC., as part of the royal residence. Synthesis and Panel Discussion with all Presenters and Written Questions from the Audience, Presenters The Modern Library, 2007. Thursday, February 11, 2010 Press, 1986. The city of Alexandria was the focus of this Hellenistic period. Hellenism is the term generally used by historians to refer to the period from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.E.) This lecture employs this tale, however fictitious it may be, as an illuminating window on the place of Jewish culture in the life of Alexandria and on the relationship between Jewish intellectuals and the Hellenistic monarchy in Egypt. Gruen, Erich. Director of the Bibliotheca Alexandrina His other publications includeSkopas of Paros (1977); Attika: Studies in Athenian Sculpture of the Hellenistic Age (1979); Faces of Power: Alexander’s Image and Hellenistic Politics (1993); Art, Desire, and the Body in Ancient Greece (1997); Attalos, Athens, and the Akropolis: The Pergamene “Little Barbarians” and their Roman and Renaissance Legacy (2004); and Classical Greece and the Birth of Western Art (2008). Reading the Pharmaceutria, an idyll by Theocritus, a belief in magical spells is easily seen: The Greeks who went to Alexandria were also very open-minded about the local gods, and a strange synthesis emerged in Greek Egypt. —. To what extent was it inspired by previous Greek models? She previously held an appointment as Assistant Professor in Modern Greek literature at McGill University in Montreal, Canada, from 1994-1996 and was a Social Science and Humanities Research Council of Canada Postdoctoral Fellow at the Seferis Chair at Harvard University from 1993-1994. He is Director Emeritus of Books for Asia of The Asia Foundation and President Emeritus of the Academy of Art San Francisco. The Hellenistic religions became the building blocks of Christianity.(21). Seattle: U. of Washington Press, 1998. Alexandria: Jewel of Egypt by Jean-Yves Empereur (part of the excellent Discoveries series) provides a concise, but richly illustrated, overview of Alexandria’s history from its founding in 331 BCE to its modern role as Egypt’s second city and includes selected extracts from historical documents and literary sources. During its three earliest centuries, it was perhaps the leading cultural center of the world, home to people of diff… London: Michael O’Mara Books, 1993. — and Laura Foreman. Choose from 500 different sets of chapter 5 hellenistic culture history flashcards on Quizlet. Pharos: A Lighthouse for Alexandria. William S. Greenwalt received his BA, MA and PhD from the University of Virginia. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Two lectures by Dr. Ismail Serageldin Hellenistic kings became prominent patrons of the arts, commissioning public works of architecture and sculpture, as well as private luxury items that demonstrated their wealth and taste. Greek (also known as Hellenic) culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influ-ences. Flaubert in Egypt: A Sensibility on Tour. Burn, Lucilla. Fergus Millar, Ed., London and NY: Routledge, 2000. Hellenistic Culture is the blending of Greek, Persian, Indian, and Egyptian elements. Erich S. Gruen, Gladys Rehard Wood Professor of History and Classics, UC Berkeley (PhD Harvard) was a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, twice a Guggenheim Fellow, Member of the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, and Visiting Fellow at Merton College, Oxford. The library had a mission to collect a copy of every single book ever written. The Emergence of Macedon (Princeton, 1990, 1992),Makedonika: Essays by Eugene N. Borza (Association of Ancient Historians, 1995), and Before Alexander: Constructing Early Macedonia (Association of Ancient Historians, 1999). 2:30 pm In its one hundred and twenty books, he took inventory of all manuscripts in the library. McKenzie, Judith. The library of Aristotle actually provided the model for the Library of Alexandria. Alexandria: History and culture Carmen Chica Academia Europaea-Barcelona Knowledge Hub Summary. 595 Market Street, San Francisco Her book on Art and Culture in the Era of Alexander the Great: Paradigms of Manhood and their Cultural Traditions is forthcoming from Cambridge University Press, and a co-edited volume,Assyrian Reliefs from the Palace of Ashurnasirpal II: A Cultural Biography, is forthcoming from the University Press of New England. The Vanished Library: A Wonder of the Ancient World. Augustine. Professor Jameson has lived, taught, and traveled extensively in the Near East and Africa and has led study groups to Greece, Turkey, Morocco, Iran, India, China, and Southeast Asia and continues to lecture and write on African and Asian cultures and on the history of libraries. Hellenistic Greece. (Paperback, 2002; 158 pp.) (16) Exports were the foundation of wealth for the Ptolemaic or Lagid dynasty - Egyptian exports, as well as raw materials discovered in other parts of Africa. K12IMC : Instructional Media Center:, a Virtual Library for K12. Gruen, Erich. one of the ancient wonders of the world—became magnets for travelers from the The History Channel’s The True Story of Alexander the Great (2004; 2hrs 30min; available on Netflix) gives a reasonably balanced account drawing on both ancient and modern sources with high-quality production values. Socrates, the Senses and Knowledge: Is there Any Connection? Alexandria was the first great city of its time and people from everywhere went there for their own personal reasons. We will discuss Justine, by Lawrence Durrell, the first book of his Alexandria Quartet. Athenaeus' Deipnosophists was traditionally split into fifteen books. The city is described as bustling, crowded, and very rich. Susan Stephens is Professor of Classics, Stanford University (PhD Stanford). The scientific contributions of the Museum were far-reaching: history, applied science, mathematics, optics, psychology, applied medicine, botany, hydraulics, engineering, and mechanics. Clarie, Thomas. The Septuagint also made Judaism accessible to people of other faiths, who were curious about the basis for the Jewish religion. Alexandria: Jewel of Egypt. Erich Gruen (History, UC Berkeley). Wednesday January 13, 2010 $15 general public Set amid the corrupt glamour and intrigues of 1930s Alexandria, Durrell’s novel gives a very vivid portrait of modern Alexandria. Alexandria would remain one of the leading cities of the Mediterranean well into … From 1984 to 1990 he was President of the Association of Ancient Historians. The monarchs wanted poets in their courts and libraries, and scholarly people working on scientific research for them. Andrew G. Jameson holds a Ph.D. in history from Harvard University and a doctorate in history from the Sorbonne (University of Paris), a Master of Science degree in library science from Simmons College in Boston, and a degree in archival management from Radcliffe College. Berkeley, Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 1990. Isis' iconography of Mother of all things became attached to the character of the Mother Mary, while the figure of Christ took over the figure of Osiris. One could apply for it by writing an ode to the king as Theocritus did for Ptolemy and then for his son, or a person could be sought after by the king. Thursday, February 11, 2010 It blended Greek with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences. Professor Andrew G. Jameson He is the author of In the Shadow of Olympus. Cleopatra as CEO: Bureaucracy and Scandal in the Hostile Takeover of a First Century Multinational Greek writer that created epic poem about Jason and the Argona… Many ancient texts still survive to this day because they were collected, preserved, and stored at the Library of Alexandria. Alexander the Great: A Life in Legend. There are, of course, innumerable biographies of Alexander the Great, but if you are looking for a short, readable, and lavishly illustrated introduction to his life and historical impact, try Alexander the Great: Son of the Gods by Alan Fildes and Joann Fletcher (Paperback, 2004; 176pp). University of California Press,1990. He received the Santa Clara Summer School Excellence in Teaching Award, the Santa Clara University Brutocao Award for Teaching Excellence, the Logothetti Teaching Award for Teaching Excellence in the College of Arts and Sciences, the Santa Clara University Brutocao Award for Curricular Innovation, and the Arnold L. & Lois Graves Award for Excellence in Teaching in 2005, 2001, 1999, 1995 and 1991 respectively. A thorough historical analysis of Alexandria’s role as the center of Hellenistic culture may be found in The Rise and Fall of Alexandria: Birthplace of the Modern World by Justin Pollard and Howard Reid (Paperback, 2006; 329pp; also available in Kindle and Audiobook formats). The average male no longer had any say about political issues, nor could he be a soldier since mercenary armies were the norm in the Hellenistic World. Euclid wrote a thirteen book mathematical textbook called The Elements and developed geometry into a science. (48) But it was not only the intellectuals who graced the halls of the Alexandrian Library and Museum, it was the very Ptolemic kings who financed these institutions, for they too were educated and wrote books on many subjects. Mediterranean and beyond. His awards include Distinguished Teaching Award, UC Berkeley, and the James H. Breasted Prize (for The Hellenistic World and the Coming of Rome, 1984). Princeton: Princeton U. Getting Ready for Alexandria. Today, Alexandria is the chief port and second largest city in Egypt with a population of over four million. She received her PhD from The Ohio State University. 5:30pm Reception, 6pm Lecture The Alexandria Quartet. The Architecture of Alexandria and Egypt, 300 BC-AD 700. The Alexandria Greco-Roman Museum: A Thematic Guide. Press, 1989. Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria As a result of Alexander’s policies, a vibrant new culture emerged. Seeing Double: Intercultural Poetics in Ptolemaic Alexandria. The Alexandrian Scholars were the first to divide Homer's works into twenty-four books. The Nature of Alexander the Great. Miramar, translated by Fatima Moussa Mahmoud, 1993. Tuesday, February 2, 2010 Art in the Era of Alexander the Great: Paradigms of Manhood and Their Cultural Traditions. Press, 2008. The discussion moderator will be Humanities West volunteer Lynn Harris. The books on its shelves were the medium by which scientists, philosophers, poets, historians, and musicians of antiquity enriched human experience with their research and creativity. A Look at Aristotle's Physics II. The Muslims? P.O. Tuesday, February 2, 2010 Miramar, translated by Fatima Moussa Mahmoud, 1993. Trade contributed to culture diversity in the Hellenistic city of Alexandria as it became the foremost center of commerce and Hellenistic civilization. Her current project is on beauty and ugliness in ancient Greece. Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria As a result of Alexander’s policies, a vibrant new culture emerged. Although science eventually became fossilized under the Stoics, when scientific discoveries were frowned upon, the invention and creation of those Alexandrian machines were destined to play a great role in the Industrial Revolution of the future. With the uncertainty of the time and the conflict that came with it, people began to look within themselves for peace of mind. Goddio, A.B., E. Bernard, and I. Darwish. As Michael Grant said, "Alexandria made one set of fortunes by exporting ... and another by its maritime trading all over the near and Middle East." (2005). He has held distinguished visiting professorships at the University of Washington, Trinity University, and Carleton College, and has been a visiting professor and special research fellow at the American School of Classical Studies at Athens. The Great Temple of Zeus and Athena is a unique monument of ancient Greece, considered a masterpiece of Hellenistic Period sculpture. The Hellenistic World (from the Greek word Hellas for Greece) is the known world after the conquests of Alexander the Great and corresponds roughly with the Hellenistic Period of ancient Greece, from 323 BCE (Alexander’s death) to the annexation of Greece by Rome in 146 BCE. Ibn-Battuta. The emphasis is on resources that are concise, easily accessible in a variety of formats, and aimed at a general (rather than scholarly) audience. Much of the city was built out of exquisite stone. The Library of Alexandria: Centre of Learning in the Ancient World. From 1984 to 1990 he was President of the Association of Ancient Historians. Berkeley, Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 1993. Hellenistic Culture in Alexandria As a result of Alexander’s policies, a vibrant new culture emerged. William Greenwalt, Moderator. 1325-1354, transl.by H. A. R. Gibb, 1983. For more information: commonwealthclub.org Faces of Power: Alexander’s Image and Hellenistic Politics. Yet perhaps the greatest legacies of Alexandria were its philosophers. Ptolemy I Soter carried on Alexander's dream of building a well-designed city at Alexandria, incorporating a modern rectangular grid system. PLAY. Cambridge: Cambridge U. Presented by Stanford University Libraries the royal seat of Hellenistic Egypt. Diaspora: Jews Among Greeks and Romans. NY: Penguin Group, 2006. Los Angeles: J. Paul Getty Trust Publications, 2005. Our topic this time is Alexandria, Egypt. Ptolemy had even invented a new god named Serapis, who was a combination of the Egyptian god, Osiris and the Bull god, Apis. This blending became known as Hellenistic culture. Galen also tells the amusing anecdote of Ptolemy asking unsuspecting Athenians if he could borrow the original standardized texts of their tragedies by Sophocles, Euripides, and Aeschylus, so he could have them copied. Hellenistic culture produced seats of learning in Alexandria, Egypt and Antioch, Syria, along with Greek-speaking populations across several monarchies. Its harbours were also an important part of why he chose that area of Egypt to become the capital of his empire. Plutarch, The Age of Alexander. Theophrastus is famous for his eighteen book history on botany which came directly out of the expeditions and which still forms the foundation of botany today. 2, 1989. Hellenistic philosophy stressed the private individual's search for happiness, with the Cynics emphasizing animal satisfaction and the Stoics emphasizing reason. In addition to being a Professor of Classics, he is also a Professor (by courtesy) in the department of History. Humanities West Book Discussion Theophrastus, a student of Aristotle's, advised Ptolemy on the Library. One poet writes of two women discussing why one of their husbands has vanished. (17) Ptolemy was also a very experienced general. The discussion moderator will be Humanities West volunteer Lynn Harris. After the Battle of Ipsus, it became evident that the great Hellenistic monarchs were destined to share in Alexander's conquests. Pollard, Justin and Howard Reid. Just as the monarchs collected books and scientific information, they also collected intellectuals. Press, 1989. Related Events Membership in the scholarly circle depended on court patronage. Princeton: Princeton U. Gustave. Hellenistic Art: From Alexander the Great to Augustus. Plutarch tells us that Alexander went to Egypt and liberated the Egyptians from Persian rule, which they had suffered under since the 6th century BC occupation. In Alexandria, there was a great fusing of many cultures; it was a great city built on the foundation of a tiny village to become the capital for the late great Alexander's empire. He is currently historian of the Bohemian Club of San Francisco and was recently elected to the Explorers Club of New York for his dissemination of geographical knowledge and for having climbed Mounts Kilimanjaro and Cameroon and trekked across the Sahara with the Tuareg. They would not, however, give up their own religion, nor could they accept the prevailing Hellenistic culture with its … The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). Greek (also known as Hellenic) culture blended with Egyptian, Persian, and Indian influences.This blending became known as Hellenistic culture. The Library of Alexandria: Centre of Learning in the Ancient World. For reservations click here. The library became the center of Hellenistic literature and literary life. Humanities West Book Discussion Professor Jameson has lived, taught, and traveled extensively in the Near East and Africa and has led study groups to Greece, Turkey, Morocco, Iran, India, China, and Southeast Asia and continues to lecture and write on African and Asian cultures and on the history of libraries. Cambridge: Cambridge U. The Greek World After Alexander, 323-30 BC. Renault, Mary. Ed. Martha Klironomos, Professor of English and Modern Greek Studies, is the Director of the Center for Modern Greek Studies, the Nikos Kazantzakis Chair, at San Francisco State University where she has been teaching courses in Modern Greek language and literature as well as Comparative and English literature courses since 1996. 2, 1989. In the world of medicine, Herophilus and Erasistratus followed Aristotle's empirical methods while doing their work in comparative anatomy. It was created during an age characterized by a strong sense of history. San Francisco, CA 94104, The Rise and Fall of Alexandria: Birthplace of the Modern World, The American Research Center in Egypt ARCE) Northern California Chapter, page with summaries of lectures delivered at its membership meetings, https://humanitieswest.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/alexander.jpg, https://humanitieswest.net/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/hw-log-bl-300x60.png, Alexander/Alexandria: The Flowering of Hellenistic Culture | February 5 and 6, 2010. Hellenistic Architecture The Pharos (Lighthouse) of Alexandria, Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Jose The Lighthouse of Alexandria, destroyed by an earthquake in 1300 AD., was one of the Seven Wonders of the World and 10:00 am until 12 noon & 1:30 pm to 4:00 pm, Recap of Friday. with notes by Rev. The Greek-speaking Jews of Alexandria were familiar with the works of the ancient Greek poets and philosophers and acknowledged their universal appeal. Alexandria was another center for things like Art, Philosophy, and Writing. Susan Stephens is Professor of Classics, Stanford University (PhD Stanford). Gustave. Nowhere did Mechanics’ Institute Press, 2008. Berkeley, Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 1993. Professor Jameson will focus on the origin and history of the Library, on its collections and arrangement, on the scholar-librarians, and on its disappearance–as well as on the revival of the Bibliotheca Alexandria whose purpose is to restate the universal legacy of the ancient Library in modern terms. A native of Greece, she received her BA from Brandeis University and her MA and PhD from Harvard University. Cohen, Ada. It was also a city in which Greek and Egyptian cultures must have mixed. Resource Materials He offers a number of courses from an introduction to classical culture to seminars in Greek and Roman History. But Alexandria was not the only centre of learning in the Hellenistic Greek empire. (7) By doing so, Ptolemy increased his own prestige, and also advanced his agenda to become Alexander's successor. Free. Centers of cultural activities in the Hellenistic era no longer centered around Athens, but instead, could be found in the capital cities of the great Hellenistic kings. Primary Sources —. 5:30 pm Reception, 6:00 pm Salon Alexandria: Jewel of Egypt. for three centuries after Alexander still endures. (1997); Heritage and Hellenism: The Reinvention of Jewish Tradition (1998); Diaspora: Jews amidst Greeks and Romans (2002); Cultural Borrowings and Ethnic Appropriations in Antiquity (ed.) 1962. Her research areas include the poetry of the two Nobel Prize-winning authors George Seferis and Odysseas Elytis, British and American 20th century travel writing to Greece and contemporary Greek American literature. Eugene N. Borza (History, Pennsylvania State University). Liddell, Robert. London, NY: Routledge, 2003. Publications of the Association of Ancient Historians, No. By this time, poetry had become an esoteric art form. Flaubert. (13) Temples, theatres, palaces, administrative buildings, a coin mint, the King's residence, a zoo, and its famous Museum and Library were designed and built by the Ptolemies. Alexandria in Literature —. by Daniel Mendelsohn. Koine (koy•NAY), the popular spoken language used in Hellenistic cities, was the direct result of And following from this, one must ask to what extent Hellenic culture—whatever its source—actually penetrated deeply into native cultures such as Ptolemaic Egypt during the Hellenistic Era. The kings offered little patronage to philosophers. The happy ending motif was born.(45). London, NY: Routledge, 2004. Carol G. Thomas. (15) Egypt had enormous surpluses in grain that were exported all over the Mediterranean world, besides the valuable cash crop of papyrus that was used as a writing material. The emphasis is on resources that are concise, easily accessible in a variety of formats, and aimed at a general (rather than scholarly) audience. Hellenistic Culture a term that is used chronologically to refer to the culture of the Hellenistic age and typologically to refer to the culture that resulted from the interaction of Greek (Hellenic) and local elements. Alexandria was the second-most important city in the Roman Empire, after Rome itself.It was named for its founder, Alexander the Great, who built the city after his conquest of Egypt (331 B.C.E.) by Kay Cicellis, 1974. Cambridge: Harvard, 2004. Physical and spiritual upheaval were so rampant in the Hellenistic Age that these men of science and literature needed a safe haven to pursue their life's work. They were able to receive both passenger and commercial ships, and played a central role in the exporting of valuable goods, such as grain and papyrus. He retired after forty-two years of academic teaching (Byzantine, Near Eastern, African history) and administration at Harvard, where he was Senior Tutor, and the University of California, Berkeley, where he was Assistant Vice Chancellor. The Museum had a priest in charge of it and enjoyed financial freedom. Transl. Several strategies were employed in the creation of a new legitimacy, but among the most important was their approach to culture(s). Oxford U. Choose from 500 different sets of chapter 5 hellenistic culture flashcards on Quizlet. William S. Greenwalt received his BA, MA and PhD from the University of Virginia. Berkeley, Los Angeles: U. of California Press, 2003. The struggles of the Diodochi discouraged the writing of any poetry that was not purely fictional. to the death of Cleopatra and the incorporation of Egypt in the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.E. Alexander’s Pictorial Legacy Alexandria in Literature Sunday January 24, 2010 Hellenistic Alexandria was best known in those times for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos) one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Egypt was invaded by the Arabs in 642 AD and became part of an expanding Islamic Empire. —. (26) The attractions of the city were intoxicating and some did not want to leave; but it was also a very dangerous and unpredictable place. —. The world state, the mega-state, was proposed by them. As an important trading post between Europe and Asia, it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. It was a land of opportunity, where anything was possible: the best wine, the most pungent of spices, the finest clothing, wealth which could not be imagined, luxurious architecture, expensive foods, games, numerous theatres, and the most beautiful women in the world. Mahfouz, Naguib. 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