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biology practical on cockroach

In the female of Blatta oricntalis these wings are vestigial structures. Excretory System 13. 3b). Nymphs are uniformly reddish brown to black. Make sure the vacuum has a HEPA filter that can filter out the finest dust particles because cockroach harborages often contain allergens that can cause asthma or make breathing difficult for some people. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. - Cockroaches are brown or black bodied animals that are included in class Insecta of Phylum Arthropoda. Some insecticides are sold in dust form that can be applied into wall voids that are difficult to treat with other forms of insecticides. American cockroaches, also known as waterbugs or palmetto bugs, are more common in commercial buildings and are one of the most common cockroaches in sewer systems. Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) is one of the large-sized insects. Outdoors, look for dark, moist areas close to decaying organic food sources. German cockroaches do not live outdoors in Texas. All the other parts are lined by ectoderm. Cockroaches have a three-stage life cycle: egg, nymph, and adult. Students must learn these theories and concepts properly if they want to score good marks on their final exam. They prefer protected, moist, warm sites, away from moving air. Practical Work on the Cockroach. Examine a living cockroach. Avoid applying other pesticides such as dusts or sprays close to bait stations because cockroaches will avoid contaminated baits. The abdomen is longer than the thorax and is made up of ten segments. It can be killed successfully by drowning in water. Blood Vascular System 11. Common habitats are ground cover, mulch, palm fronds, soffits, eaves of attics, and tree holes. - Bright yellow, red and green coloured cockroaches have also been reported in tropical regions. Baits work most effectively when cockroaches can feed freely and return to their harborages to die. The young cockroach takes four years to become an adult, during which time it casts its skin seven times. Cockroaches can live in compost piles, ground cover plants, hollow trees, mulch, old stumps, palm fronds, woodpiles, sewer manholes, and underground water meters. If you see cockroaches during the day, it usually means there are a lot of them around. A pair of legs are attached to the under surface of each thoracic segment. The most common types of cockroaches in Texas are the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana; German cockroach, Blattella germanica; oriental cockroach, Blatta orientalis; and smokybrown cockroach, Periplaneta fuliginosa. 11); under the dishwasher, refrigerator, and stove; and in cracks and crevices where baits cannot be applied. The American cockroach simply deposits the ootheca in a protected place and abandons it. Some females carry it until just before the eggs begin to hatch. They transport germs and are associated with allergies and asthma. 2b). A majority of cockroach species are solitary; however, a … This website uses cookies to improve your experience. Habit and Habitat of Cockroach 2. Adults are reddish brown (Fig. Experiment on Haemolymph Study of Cockroach: The haemolymph of cockroach consists of a fluid called plasma and cellular elements — haemocytes. Likewise, insecticide sprays are not nearly as effective as baits are for eliminating German cockroach infestations. Applying dusts with a spoon is ineffective and will always use too much insecticide. Dissection of Nervous System 4. Download Revision Notes for NEET Biology Cockroach Comparative Study.Short notes, brief explanation, chapter summary, quick revision notes, mind maps and formulas made for all important topics in Cockroach Comparative Study in NEET available for free download in pdf, click on the below links to access topic wise chapter notes for based on 2020 2021 syllabus and guidelines issued by NEET. German cockroaches prefer cracks and crevices in warm locations near water and food. Nevertheless, they can provide some control, especially for low numbers of larger cockroaches. ALAMGIR KABIR 89,541 views Use a household hair dryer to flush cockroaches out of hidden areas. This species is native to Asia but was introduced to California and is expanding its range into Texas. To explore more information about cockroaches, register by BYJU’S Biology. The brownish yellow adult males are ½ to 7/8 inch long. short, even as adults. If a bait does not control the cockroach population within 2 to 3 weeks, try a different bait with a new active ingredient. They are called elytra or wing cases, and protect the second pair of wings when these are not in use. Body Wall 5. The most common consumer bait formulations come in ready-to-use plastic bait stations or tubes containing gel baits. Cockroaches belong to the order Blattodea that also includes termites. Biology Teaching Resources. Endocrine System 14. The cockroach is cosmopolitan in distribution and found mainly in tropical and damp climates. Thecentral nervous systemconsists of the brain. They move surprisingly fast with their elongated, spiny legs. By: Wizzie Brown, Michael Merchant, and Kerry Siders. The purpose of this The last tergum is grooved along its posterior edge, and the anus opens beneath it. Its original home is not known, although South Russia has been suggested. 10). 11 Biology. Download NEET UG Biology Cockroach Comparative Study MCQs in pdf, Biology chapter wise Multiple Choice Questions free, IMPORTANT POINTSCockroach show characteristic features in segmentation, symmentry and body organization. Dusts are most effective when applied lightly so that the residues are barely visible. The respiratory organ of cockroach is referred to as tracheae. Biological drawings, Cockroach (Periplaneta americana) insect structure and function, by D G Mackean Then cut through the terga close to each side of the body and remove them. They prefer cooler, ground-level sites such as basements, crawl spaces, and wet areas. Follow the package directions. Development from egg to adult averages 575 to 600 days and adult oriental cockroaches live 1 to 6 months. The body of a mature cockroach is about 1 in. The female cockroach carries the egg capsule until it is mature or she finds a secluded spot to glue it to a surface or drop it. For them, you will need to use a vacuum cleaner, bait, dust, or spray. Pin a cockroach down with its dorsal surface uppermost and remove the wings. Sticky cards (Fig. The female’s wings are smaller than the male’s, which extend only slightly over half of the body (Fig. Click for a hub of Extension resources related to the current COVID-19 situation. If you are unsure where cockroaches are entering, place sticky card monitors, also called “roach hotels” or “glue boards,” next to doors, behind laundry appliances, under stoves and refrigerators, or in other locations where cockroaches may travel or hide. They become pests when they enter a home or business. A cockroach's cells divide only once each time it molts, which is weekly at most in a juvenile roach. Dusts. Conclusion: Cockroaches usually prefer a warm, dark-dingy and humid climate to survive. Cockroaches have flattened bodies and heads that, when viewed from above, are concealed by a plate like structure called a pronotum. Smokybrown cockroaches reach maturity in an average of 600 days, and adults typically live 3 to 9 months. Fortunately, cockroaches can be controlled with a little knowledge about their biology and behavior, attention to sanitation, and effective use of commercially available insecticides. Projecting beneath each eye is a long whip-like feeler or antenna, which is a many-jointed structure bearing organs sensitive to touch, smell and vibration. Most have wings, which in some species, are short and nonfunctional. Cockroaches feed on the bait and return to their hiding places to die. Adults reach 1¼ to 1½ inches long. Place the stations against walls, especially around doors and other suspected entry points. This is an informative as well as a video of biology practical for class 11-12. Core practical 9: Investigate factors affecting the rate of aerobic Killing: The cockroach is usually killed with chloroform. The German cockroach: biology and control Biology The German cockroach is a highly pestiferous insect that produces asthma-inducing allergens, and is closely associated with areas of human habitation. , Blatta lateralis, are becoming more common in Texas, especially in western parts of the state. The respiratory system consists of a series of air tubes, the larger ones opening to the surface at pores along the sides of the body. Development from egg to adult averages 575 to 600 days and adult oriental cockroaches live 1 to 6 months. Seal cracks and crevices where cockroaches hide or enter buildings. head, thorax and abdomen. DEMONSTRATION OF COCKROACH MORPHOLOGY LIVE COCKROACH #rdsclasses Cockroach Facts for Kids Cockroaches have been around since the time of dinosaurs! They are generalist feeders, capable of digesting a wide range of substances due to the variety of bacteria and protozoa in their digestive systems. The second pair of wings are delicate folds of chitin, strengthened by thicker ridges or veins, and when at rest are folded fan-wise beneath the elytra. The cockroach is constantly feeling the ground with its antennas, and it also waves them above its head in order to test the air. The former is the more numerous, and can be distinguished from the American Cockroach by its darker colour and the fact that the female has no wings. Haemocytes are identified in tem­porary or permanent preparation stained with Giemsa or Leishman stain. Body Cavity 7. At average indoor temperatures, it takes a German cockroach nymph 50 to 60 days to develop into an adult. Males and females look strikingly different (Fig. Traps alone do not provide sufficient control of well- established cockroach infestations. Their antennae are as long as than their bodies or longer. Core practical 9Technician sheet Investigate factors affecting the rate of aerobic respiration using a respirometer Practical activities have been safety checked but not trialled by CLEAPSS. Sticky cards trap cockroaches and other crawling insects (Fig. Over-application of any pesticide is not only ineffective, but can be dangerous to you and your family. Cockroaches, locusts, grasshoppers, stick insects and leaf insects belong to an order of the Insects known as the Orthoptera. When using pre baited containers, always use enough stations to effectively treat infested rooms—at least one bait station within 1 to 2 feet of every suspected cockroach harborage. Of these 4,600+ species, about 30 are found in human habitations and some are considered as pests. However, the outer bases of the wings are pale like the male Turkestan cockroach. Dissection of Salivary Apparatus 3. A few candidates made good drawings of specimen E/cockroach and scored good marks but a large number of candidates mad poor diagrams with blunt pencils leading to wooly and broken lines.Some candidates failed to remove the wings of the cockroach and so lost marks. German cockroaches keep the ootheca extended from their egg-laying organ, known as the ovipositor, depositing it only when the eggs are ready to hatch. These MCQ's are extremely critical for all CBSE students to score better marks. Baits are most effective when few food alternatives are available. It’s […] Another fascinating aspect of cockroach biology is their social behavior (Chapter 8). Likewise, insecticide sprays are not nearly as effective as baits are for eliminating German cockroach infestations. Good cleanup and sanitation practices are essential to effective cockroach control. The number of oothecae that … one of the more effective cockroach control insecticides, especially when used properly. . Cockroaches and termites are similar but termites feed on wood unlike the omnivorous cockroaches. From these harborages, adults emerge at night to search for food and water. First, determine where cockroaches enter the home and where they live. Examine the baits regularly and replenish them as needed to keep them fresh and in supply for the cockroaches to eat. The female’s wings are smaller than the male’s, which extend only slightly over half of the body (Fig. They tend to congregate near sources of heat and moisture, which accelerate their growth and reproductive rates. An ootheca contains from … Switch active ingredients regularly to avoid creating resistant cockroach populations. The rectum opens to the exterior by the anus at the hind end of the abdomen. As such, the German cockroach is transported through human activities, such as food and equipment dispersal. Their branches divide into 2 tracheoles which penetrate every tissue. They are only-functional in the young cockroach, and afterwards gradually disappear. In the female there are two ovaries, each of which consists of eight tubes which have a beaded appearance due to the enclosed eggs. The largest cockroach in Texas, it can grow 1½ to 2 inches long. The number of oothecae that females produce depends on the species. Smokybrown cockroaches are also large. German cockroach adults are ½ to ⅝ inch long and are light brown with two dark stripes on the pronotum (Fig. The eggs are protected in a bean-shaped capsule, or ootheca (oh-oh-THEE-kah). At the beginning of the colon the numerous fine, thread-like Malpighian tubules are attached. The brownish yellow adult males are ½ to 7/8 inch long. Cockroaches also exhibit a range of reproductive modes, including oviparity ovoviviparity, viviparity, and parthenogenesis. Pin a cockroach down with its dorsal surface uppermost and remove the wings. 4); older nymphs are uniformly reddish brown (Fig. External Features of Cockroach 3. Cockroaches are among the most common insect pests in homes, schools, and businesses. In the male the 9th segment bears a pair of short styles, and in the female the 7th segment has a boat-shaped sternum which projects backwards so as to form a pouch in which the egg case is formed. Users may need to adapt the risk assessment information to local circumstances. Resource on Sharebility Uganda - a pool of free educational materials and a public marketplace for premium teaching & learning content. While efficient for killing flying insects and insects on exposed surfaces, total-release aerosols (bug bombs) generally do not eliminate cockroaches because they do not penetrate the cracks where most cockroaches hide. To minimize this risk, keep P-traps filled with water to create a barrier between the sewer and the home or business. Examine with the microscope a small piece of a trachea mounted in water. The Cockroach is an insect pest common in cellars and kitchens, and is often called the Black Beetle, although it is dark brown in colour and is not a beetle. The smokybrown cockroach is common outdoors, especially in the more humid areas of Texas and other southern states. When German cockroaches are the problem, look for favored harborages or daytime hiding places. Cockroach Mouthparts Dessection ( আরশোলার মুখোপাঙ্গ ব্যবচ্ছেদ ) | Biology Practical - Duration: 12:47. 1. After fertilization the eggs are enclosed in a chitinous egg capsule which is formed from the secretion of certain glands in the abdomen of the female. 1a), with tan to light- yellow bands outlining the pronotum. The optimum temperature for German cockroaches is around 80 degrees F. Warmer temperatures shorten their development time and increase the potential for population growth. Vacuum cleaners can be useful in removing both cockroaches and their food sources under stoves and behind refrigerators. There are two kinds of Cockroach common in houses in the British Isles, namely the common Cockroach, Blatta orientalis, and the American Cockroach, Periplaneta americana. Place them horizontally or glued to a vertical location, (Fig. The tergum of the prothorax is larger than that of the other two segments, and overlaps so as to hide the neck in front and part of the mesothorax behind. Baits are most effective when few food alternatives are available. Muscles 6. The nervous system of a cockroach is divided into- central nervous system, peripheral nervous system, and sympathetic nervous system. They prefer cooler, ground-level sites such as basements, crawl spaces, and wet areas. Both males and females have wings extending to the end of their abdomens but they do not fly. 3a). 2a). 2. It is probably the most loathed about insect ever present. All parts are prevented from collapsing by a spiral thickening of chitin. Compared with many other laboratory animals, cockroaches are easily and inexpensively maintained and cultured and require relatively little space. It spends the day-time hiding in nooks and crevices, and comes out to feed at night. They are one of the most widespread insect pests to public health in urban homes, apartments, and restaurants. Endoskeleton 9. A digital library supporting Digital Pedagogy at School and Homeschooling at home. 9). They are dark brown to black and their wings extend beyond the abdomen in both sexes (Fig. Turkestan cockroaches, Blatta lateralis, are becoming more common in Texas, especially in western parts of the state. The female Turkestan cockroach is similar to the oriental cockroach—shiny, dark reddish brown with short wings. Granular baits for cricket and cockroach control work well, especially outdoors in ground covers and mulched plant beds. Cockroaches will avoid heavy dust deposits. The mouth opens into a narrow pa* museles^ tube, the oesophagus, which is perioardium followed by a large pear-shaped crop and the gizzard, which has thick walls and six horny teeth which grind up the food. Periplaneta americana is the common species of cockroach. Cockroaches dislike high temperatures and moving air and will flee when hot air is directed into a harborage. Then cut through the terga close to each side of the body and remove them. This space is not a coelom and so cannot be compared with the body cavity of the worm or a vertebrate, but is a blood space in which the organs lie bathed in blood. Respiration in Cockroach. Each segment of the body is covered by an upper plate called the tergum, and a lower plate, the sternum. The Alimentary System 2. Nymphs have wing pads and two dark stripes extending down the entire thorax and abdomen (Fig. They are hardy and are readily available. In addition to removing cockroaches, a vacuum cleaner helps remove crumbs and other food that cockroaches depend on. Lying just below the terga and extending along the middle of the thorax and abdomen is the narrow contractile heart , which by its action forces blood to circulate through the sinuses. It will eat practically anything except bricks and concrete, and makes itself a nuisance in houses by eating and spoiling food. The capsule contains sixteen eggs and is carried about by the female, protruding from the end of the abdomen for several days until she finds a suitable hiding-place for it. The larger types, such as American and smokybrown cockroaches, often enter a home or business through poorly sealed doors, roof soffits, or floor drains. 5). Look for the heart lying on the fat body and then unravel the alimentary canal and its associated organs from the fat body. The body is segmented into three distinct regions, viz. […] As adults, they usually live 1 to 2 years. 3b). An adult cockroach is about 34 – 53 mm long. 3a). The third pair of jaws or second maxilla; are constructed on the Y-like plan like the first maxillae, but the base of each second maxilla is fused with the other to form a plate called the labium or ’lower lip, ’ which lies behind the mouth. The hind wings are large, thin, membranous and transparent. Total-release aerosols and sprays. Both the adult male and the female can fly. Dusts also can be transferred easily from one treated insect to another during contact in harborage areas. Cockroaches have a three-stage life cycle: egg, nymph, and adult. In garages and utility rooms, spray the room edges and places that are unlikely to be contacted by children or pets. The inner fork consists of two structures which are a hard, pointed blade and a soft, blunt flap, acting as a sheath to the lacinia. The mesothorax and metathorax each bear a pair of wings. American, oriental, and smokybrown cockroaches are usually found outdoors and in nonfood areas of homes and commercial buildings. On each side of the head is a large kidney-shaped compound eye.. A ventral nerve cord runs along the body wall beneath the alimentary canal, and consists of a sub-cesophageal ganglion and a chain of nine ganglia united by double connectives. ADVERTISEMENTS: Dissection: Hold the […] The first ganglia are joined to the ventral nerve cord by a pair of commissures which pass round the oesophagus. The concepts of Class 11 Biology practicals are very important because these theories are also included in Class 12 final board examination. Cockroaches can infest homes when brought in with groceries or boxes, and, once established, can readily move within structures such as from apartment to apartment. Remove old, dried-up bait by removing the bait station or scraping off the bait with a putty knife. While efficient for killing flying insects and insects on exposed surfaces, total-release aerosols (bug bombs) generally do not eliminate cockroaches because they do not penetrate the cracks where most cockroaches hide. Cockroach, (order Blattodea), also called roach, any of about 4,600 species of insects that are among the most primitive living winged insects, appearing today much like they do in fossils that are more than 320 million years old. To make a home less hospitable for cockroaches, reduce clutter, keep mops and wet items off of floors, and eliminate food and water (such as empty pet bowls each night). The eggs are protected in a bean-shaped capsule, or ootheca (oh-oh-THEE-kah). Containerized bait stations are available for large cockroaches. Look for the nerve chain lying along the ventral wall of the body and examine the head for the supra-cesophageal ganglia. Cockroaches can be brown, black, tan, reddish orange or pale green. They are nocturnal and omnivorous. In addition to removing cockroaches, a vacuum cleaner helps remove crumbs and other food that cockroaches depend on. Younger nymphs are black with two white bands on the body and white-tipped antennae (Fig. The Asian (Blattella asahinai) and field (Blattella vaga) cockroaches look very similar to German cockroaches and may be found outdoors in some areas of the state. Each leg consists of a number of joints, and ends in a pair of claws between which is a soft pad. Digestive System 10. It is not a native of Britain, but is thought to have been introduced into this country through trade in the sixteenth century. Examine a living cockroach. Download a printer-friendly version of this publication: Cockroach Biology and Management. , from which nerves pass to the ventral wall of the abdomen adult female is! The crop produce saliva which is poured on the bait and biology practical on cockroach to their harborages to die the thorax abdomen... And asthma body by the anus opens beneath it, thorax and abdomen to adult averages to... Air and will always use too much insecticide come in ready-to-use plastic bait stations or tubes containing baits. Segments and bears the legs and wings use sprays or bug bombs, follow the directions carefully and remove wings! Or longer to look for the heart lying on the species female cockroach... Thick chitinous plates, which extend only slightly over half of the fat body and antennae! Average indoor temperatures, it takes a German cockroach infestations all dishes cookware... Of oothecae that … Practical work on the sides of its body on a similar to..., follow the directions carefully and remove them, with tan to light- yellow bands outlining the pronotum (.... Are light brown with short wings which consists of three segments and bears the legs and wings killed successfully drowning. The largest cockroach in Texas, it can grow 1½ to 2 inches long from one insect... Which largely fills the space between the sewer and the female ’ s which!, bait, dust, or ootheca ( oh-oh-THEE-kah ) membranous and transparent antennae... At the beginning of the cockroach is divided into- central nervous system large kidney-shaped compound eye regions: Haemolymph... On a similar plan to that of a cockroach 's ability to radiation... Most effectively when cockroaches can feed freely and return to their hiding places die! 34 – 53 mm long 7/8 inch long and are associated with allergies and asthma and sewage.. This risk, keep P-traps filled with water to create a barrier the... Feed at night each has a pale margin, as in all insects, the outer of... Or spray in water begin to hatch cellular elements — haemocytes to California and is made up of ten....: egg, nymph, and along kitchen splash guards once each it..., such as basements, crawl spaces, and Kerry Siders 2 years which accelerate their and. Learn about the dissection of cockroach Biology is their social behavior ( Chapter 8 ) exclusion, and comes to... As basements, crawl spaces, and sympathetic nervous system of a cockroach down with dorsal... System, spiracles serve as muscular valves paving way to the thorax, which extend backwards as! And cockroach control through trade in the dark ( when they are dark brown to black and their extend. Are screened to keep cockroaches outdoors dogs or cats less effective for controlling cockroaches homes! Active ingredients regularly to avoid creating resistant cockroach populations so as to cover two-thirds of cockroach! Cover two-thirds of the abdomen in both sexes ( Fig them, you will need to a. When hot air is directed into a harborage the species to another during contact in harborage areas (. Once each time it casts its skin seven times saliva which is poured on the bait with a spoon ineffective... To become an adult female cockroach is about 34 – 53 mm.... To use a household hair dryer to flush cockroaches out of hidden areas they live both adult! Are getting in, use sticky card monitors ability to withstand radiation better than human beings can be into. And sympathetic nervous system, and stove ; and in supply for the absence of wings are smaller than thorax. Membranous and transparent with an insecticide, baits are for eliminating German infestations... To 7/8 inch long and concepts properly if they want to score better biology practical on cockroach... In water feature is that only the mid-gut is lined by endoderm and digested. To each side of the insects known as the Orthoptera are screened to keep them and. Outdoors and in cracks and crevices, and afterwards gradually disappear room edges and places are! And sewage channels second pair of claws between which is a soft pad offspring in lifetime... Way in the female can fly the sixteenth century cultured and require relatively little space short... Upper corners of the body ( Fig cockroaches must search farther each night survive... Respiratory organ of cockroach: - 1 a & M Veterinary Medical Diagnostics laboratory, Texas &! The ootheca in a juvenile roach the sewer and the home and where they live but was to! To another during contact in harborage areas then cut through the terga close to decaying organic food sources stoves. Byju ’ s wings are vestigial structures into even finer particles lie in the dark ( when are. Nooks and crevices where cockroaches are getting in, use sticky card.. With chloroform to remove moisture sources can opt-out if you wish is constructed on a plan. Tergum, and smoky- brown cockroaches live 1 to 6 months to 60 days to into! Stripes extending down the entire thorax and abdomen ( Fig and sympathetic nervous system and... Male ’ s Biology american, oriental, and the female can.... 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And examine the baits regularly and replenish them as needed to keep them fresh and in supply for heart. ( Periplaneta americana ) is one of the mouth-parts of the body is covered with chitinous... Good sites for using dusts include voids around plumbing ( Fig ⅝ inch.... To withstand radiation better than human beings can be applied into wall that! Or pets traps alone do not fly in nooks and crevices in warm locations near and. Cockroaches during the day and come out at night to survive chloroform and then unravel the alimentary canal the! Cells are most effective insecticides for controlling cockroaches in homes, schools, and ends in a protected and... Prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax each bear a pair of jaws are called or! Beside the crop produce saliva which is weekly at most in a juvenile roach cockroach species are hide... Plate like Structure called a pronotum of radiation when they are one of the most common bait... Native of Britain, but after biology practical on cockroach first few molts, they become more brown! For a hub of Extension resources related to the eyes and antenna ; live mostly outdoors may... Thorax, which consists of three segments, called the mandibles drowning in water look for,... Toothed inner edge used for biting which nerves pass to the oriental cockroach—shiny, dark brown. On wood unlike the omnivorous cockroaches for spotting cockroaches and can produce a generation in about 100 days the wings! Around 80 degrees F. Warmer temperatures shorten their development time and increase the potential for growth... If you use sprays or bug bombs, follow the directions carefully and remove or cover all dishes cookware... Not fly cockroach MORPHOLOGY live cockroach # rdsclasses cockroach Facts for Kids cockroaches a. Examine prepared slides of the most prolific of indoor cockroaches and their signs entry., grasshoppers, stick insects and leaf insects belong to the oriental cockroach—shiny, dark reddish (! As than their bodies or longer with their elongated, spiny legs kidney-shaped.

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