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druze and hinduism

The Druze call themselves muwaḥḥidun (‘unitarians’). Lebanon: J 31%, E 22%, K 21%, R 14%, L 10%. [65], Al-Hakim became a central figure in the Druze faith even though his own religious position was disputed among scholars. Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God. Fakhr-al-Din became too strong for his Turkish sovereign in Constantinople. The Druze faith began as an Isma'ili movement that was opposed to certain religious and philosophical ideologies that were present during that epoch. It is thought that the first Druze worshippers probably lived in Cairo, where Druzism was adopted by Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah who ruled in Egypt and the eastern Mediterranean – known as the Levant – between 996 and 1021. Traditional snacks eaten with mate include raisins, nuts, dried figs, biscuits, and chips. Several towns were bombarded with heavy weapons, killing scores of civilians and destroying many houses. HINDUISM The relation between the Druze faith and the far eastern thinking isobscure. The Harmouche family was banished from Mount Lebanon following the battle of Ain Dara in 1711. Digital Event, Victoria, Copyright © 2010–2020, The Conversation Media Group Ltd. This view is based on the observation that as the number of his followers grew, he became obsessed with his leadership and gave himself the title "The Sword of the Faith". [71] It is believed that al-Darazi allowed wine, forbidden marriages and taught metempsychosis[73] although it has argued that his actions might have been exaggerated by contemporary and later historians and polemicists. This led the Ottoman government to agree to an arrangement whereby the different nahiyes (districts) of the Chouf would be granted in iltizam ("fiscal concession") to one of the region's amirs, or leading chiefs, leaving the maintenance of law and order and the collection of its taxes in the area in the hands of the appointed amir. Women can opt to wear al-mandÄ«l, a loose white veil, especially in the presence of other people. [133], The Druze also use a similar formula, called al-'ahd, when one is initiated into the Ê»Uqqāl. Druze have not proselytized since the 11th century, and the religion remains closed to outsiders. The Druze believe he went into Occultation with Hamza ibn Ali and three other prominent preachers, leaving the care of the "Unitarian missionary movement" to a new leader, al-Muqtana Baha'uddin. Absolute submission and resignation to God's divine will in both secret and public. What is the holiest book in Hinduism? Most of the coins carry the name of Al-Hakim. [citation needed], The 1911 edition of Encyclopædia Britannica states that the Druzes are "a mixture of refugee stocks, in which the Arab largely predominates, grafted on to an original mountain population of Aramaic blood". [72] Al-Darazi argued that he should be the leader of the daÊ»wah rather than Hamza ibn Ali and gave himself the title "Lord of the Guides" because Caliph al-Hakim referred to Hamza as "Guide of the Consented". E. Shiite. [110][page needed], When a local paper in 1945 reported that President Shukri al-Quwatli (1943–49) had called the Druzes a "dangerous minority", Sultan Pasha al-Atrash flew into a rage and demanded a public retraction. [10] Most Israeli Druze identify ethnically as Arabs. Shishakli dispatched 10,000 regular troops to occupy the Jebel al-Druze. Although the Druze consider ad-DarazÄ« a heretic,[50] the name has been used to identify them, possibly by their historical opponents as a way to attach their community with ad-Darazi poor perception. Because of their fierce battles with the Crusaders, the Druzes earned the respect of the Sunni Muslim caliphs and thus gained important political powers. The researchers found the following frequencies of Y-chromosomal haplogroups:[243][dubious – discuss], A 2016 study based on testing samples of Druze in the Syria (region) in comparison with ancient humans (including Anatolian and Armenian), and on Geographic Population Structure (GPS) tool by converting genetic distances into geographic distances, concluded that Druze might hail from the Zagros Mountains and the surroundings of Lake Van in eastern Anatolia, then they later migrated south to settle in the mountainous regions in Syria, Lebanon and Israel.[244]. In the Hebrew Bible Jethro was Moses' father-in-law, a Kenite shepherd and priest of Midian,[235] Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. Religions that adopt reincarnation as part of their mainstream teachings include Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism. From 1957, the Israeli government formally recognized the Druze as a separate religious community,[231] and are defined as a distinct ethnic group in the Israeli Ministry of Interior's census registration. Thus, they are not trustworthy and should not be forgiven. Humans and the Environment. [86][page needed]. [49] The Druze's social customs differ markedly from those of Muslims and today's more urbanized Christians. Sharia was opposed and Druze traditions started during the call continue today, such as meeting for reading, prayer and social gathering on a Thursday instead of a Friday at Khalwats instead of mosques. But thanks to our new research that mystery may now have been solved, with the use of a genetic GPS system – that works in a similar way to the sat nav in your car. Acquiescence in God's acts no matter what they be. In terms of religious comparison, mainstream Christian denominations do not believe in reincarnation or the transmigration of the soul, unlike the Druze. [72], In an attempt to gain the support of al-Hakim, al-Darazi started preaching that al-Hakim and his ancestors were the incarnation of God. We have listed below the religions with the most followers … Future public sector leaders' series [28] The Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism, a branch of Shia Islam,[29] Gnosticism,[30][31] Christianity,[30][31] Zoroastrianism,[32][33] Buddhism,[34][35] Hinduism,[36][37] Neoplatonism,[30][31] Pythagoreanism,[36][37] and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology based on an esoteric interpretation of scripture, which emphasises the role of the mind and truthfulness. By conveying to you the reality of his intention, the Prince of Believers hath spared you any excuse for doing so. Hamza gained the support of the Fātimid caliph al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who issued a decree promoting religious freedom prior to the declaration of the divine call. Thus, God is perceived as the Lahut [the divine] who manifests His Light in the Station (Maqaam) of the Nasut [material realm] without the Nasut becoming Lahut. [198] Islam teaches dawah, unlike the Druze who do not accept converts to their faith. [217] On the other hand, Benjamin of Tudela, a Jewish traveler[218] from the 12th century, pointed out that the Druze maintained good commercial relations with the Jews nearby, and according to him this was because the Druze liked the Jewish people. This led to the suspension of the movement for one year and the expulsion of ad-Darazi and his supporters. He saw minority demands as tantamount to treason. The faith was preached by Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad, an Ismaili mystic and scholar from Zozan, Khorasan, in the Samanid Empire. The rebellion was led by al-Atrash family, originated in local disputes and Druze unwillingness to pay taxes and conscript into the Ottoman Army. In the Epistles of Wisdom, Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad warns al-Darazi, saying, "Faith does not need a sword to aid it". Many of the Druze feudal families whose genealogies have been preserved by the two modern Syrian chroniclers Haydar al-Shihabi and Ahmad Faris al-Shidyaq seem also to point in the direction of this origin. The Druze faith incorporates some elements of Islam,[30][31] and other religious beliefs. Many spies, mainly the followers of al-Darazi, joined the Unitarian movement in order to infiltrate the Druze community. [40], Christianity and Druze are Abrahamic religions that share a historical traditional connection with some major theological differences. Ye are now safe from any hand which may bring harm unto you. 19, No. However, al-Darazi ignored Hamza's warnings and continued to challenge the Imam. In 1618 political changes in the Ottoman sultanate had resulted in the removal of many enemies of Fakhr-al-Din from power, signaling the prince's triumphant return to Lebanon soon afterwards. "-, R. Scott Kennedy "The Druze of the Golan: A Case of Non-Violent Resistance". Druze are ethnically Arab and Arabic speaking, but many do not consider themselves Palestinian. A group of devotees is living in Katzir-Harish. For example, Muhammad is considered a natiq, Ali is considered an asas, but both are considered prophets. However, studies done on larger samples showed that L-M20 averages 5% in Israeli Druze,[Footnote 1] 8% in Lebanese Druze,[Footnote 2] and it was not found in a sample of 59 Syrian Druze. [5] The Institute of Druze Studies estimates that 40%–50% of Druze live in Syria, 30%–40% in Lebanon, 6%–7% in Israel, and 1%–2% in Jordan. In terms of religious comparison, scholars consider Judaism and the Druze faith as ethnoreligious groups,[233] and both practice endogamy,[19] and both typically do not proselytize. He hath urged you to declare your belief openly. Galilee: J 31%, R 20%, E 18%, G 14%, K 11%, Q 4%, L 2%. The leading "Atrash" family also can trace its background to the Kurdish tribe, the Hartush/Atrush, found in northern Iraq and southeastern Turkey today. Special group of initiates called uqqal. Both faiths give … [229][217][230] If it were not forthcoming, he announced, the Druzes would indeed become "dangerous", and a force of 4,000 Druze warriors would "occupy the city of Damascus". Hamza bin Ali refutes such claims by stating that if the esoteric interpretation of taharah (purity) is purity of the heart and soul, it doesn't mean that a person can discard his physical purity, as salat (prayer) is useless if a person is untruthful in his speech and that the esoteric and exoteric meanings complement each other. This area borders the Zagros and the Ararat mountains and is the tallest region in Turkey. But after his sudden disappearance, his successor prosecuted the Druze ruthlessly and abolished the faith in Egypt. There are thought to be around 1m Druze people in the world today, whose secretive religion was developed in 986 AD as a movement within Islam. [221][222] During the Druze revolt against the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, the Jewish community in Safad was attacked by Druze rebels in early July 1838, the violence against the Jews included plundering their homes and desecrating their synagogues. A Druze cannot be reincarnated in the body of a non-Druze. [122] In 2010, the population of Israeli Druze citizens grew to over 125,000. Druzites are known for their loyalty to the countries they reside in,[103][page needed][verification needed] though they have a strong community feeling, in which they identify themselves as related even across borders of countries. As a monotheistic religion, followers of the Druze religion prescribe in the belief of one deity who they say is transcendent, and therefore is incomprehensible. If I crush the head, the serpent will die." The Druze were no different. It is important to note that particularistic faiths such as Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, and the Druze religion are amicable towards Judaism while particularistic political doctrines are not. There is neither "how", "when", nor "where" about him; he is incomprehensible. The original Druze believed that the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi Amr Allah was divine. The Bible B. [50] As a result, the faith went underground, in hope of survival, as those captured were either forced to renounce their faith or be killed. [38] The Reincarnation is a paramount tenet in the Druze faith. The military balance of power in Syria was tilted in favor of the Druzes, at least until the military build up during the 1948 War in Palestine. However, there are sects of other religions that incorporate reincarnation on a smaller level, such as Kabbalah and Druze. But European intervention pressured the Turks to treat the Maronites more justly.

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