It is easily recognizable by its very large oval leaves with cordate bases and rounded tips, some of the lower leaves having red stems. Bitter dock is a perennial herbaceous plant that is found in many countries. ... More Content from Plant Identification Plant Identification. Wild dock species are native all around the world. Rumex crispusÂ produces a long taproot. Other dock species common in New Zealand: Curled dock (Rumex crispus) Similar to broad-leaved dock except for its leaves which are narrower, with crinkled edges, leaves tapered towards tip and base.  It is a plant growing readily on arable land, meadows, waste ground, roadsides, ditches, shorelines and riverbanks, woodland margins, forest clearings, and orchards. That is the color of the dried flower-head in fall. Curly dock inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed areas. If you are going to try to dig it out, you must dig deep, so as to remove theÂ wholeÂ root; otherwise, as a perennial weed, the plant will re-emerge. , Leaves of the plant can be used as salad, to prepare a vegetable broth or to be cooked like spinach. Broad-leaved dock can be differentiated from other genus Rumex plants by its broad, blunt leaves. It is a culinary and pot herb as well as an apothecary's medicinal. , Various parasites and predators of R. obtusifolius include 32 insect species and 12 fungi species. The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex, are a genus of about 200 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family, Polygonaceae. It spreads via seed produced by tiny brownish-green flowers, which appear in abundance in summer and are loved by seed-eating birds. Blooming occurs in clusters in the form of multiple, long, skinny flower stalks at the top of the plant. Exotic species include Curled Dock (R. crispus), Clustered Dock (R. conglomeratus), Fiddle Dock (R. pulcher) and Broad-leaf Dock (R. obtusifolius). Its toxicity is due to its oxalic acid content. , Rumex obtusifolius is a perennial herbaceous flowering plant that grows to a height of 40 to 150 cm (16 to 59 in). David Beaulieu is a garden writer with nearly 20 years experience writing about landscaping and over 10 years experience working in nurseries. Quinlan, S.E., and S. Cuccarese. It is a highly invasive species in some zones, resulting from its abundant seed dispersal, adaptability to reproduce, aggressive roots, ability to tolerate extreme climates, and hardiness. The plant reaches as much as 4 feet tall at maturity. Plants may be poisonous to livestock when ingested in quantity. Most of these species are very difficult to identify by the achene. dock. Leaves can be used as a vegetable; roots and seeds may be used for herbal or medicinal purposes Rumex obtusifolius, commonly known as bitter dock, broad-leaved dock, bluntleaf dock, dock leaf or butter dock, is a perennial plant in the family Polygonaceae. Ditches, roadsides, wetlands, pastures, agronomic crop fields (especially those in perennial crops like alfalfa), orchards, disturbed, unmanaged sites, and disturbed m… Whereas the subject of this article has basal leaves shaped like swords, the basal leaves of its relative are shaped more like shields. Aptly named bloody dock for its distinctive red veins, this herbaceous plant originates in the Mediterranean. Broad-leaved dock is a tall plant with very large, wavy-edged, oblong leaves that have red stems on their undersides. Image courtesy of Matthew Naedel. In more detail, the calyx of curly dock has smooth margins while the calyx of broad-leaved dock has horned margins. Yellow dock flowers are green and sometimes a touch of red. Stems become stiff and woody as the plant matures. It provides food for at least 6-9 months, and year-round in some climates. Botanical Classification for Yellow Dock Plants, Home Remedy Against Rash From Stinging Nettles, Common Backyard Plants That Are Poisonous to Dogs. Just roll a leaf of yellow dock between your thumb and forefinger to crush it, then doctor your wound with the juicy pulp left over, and the burning will subside. Bitter dock (Rumex obtusifolius) Curly dock — also called curled dock — has leaves with lots of “ruffles” across the leaf and along the edges. Broadleaf Dock. Those of you aware of the challenges involved in dandelion control will understand this problem.  The edges of the leaves are slightly "crisped" or wavy, the upper surface is hairless and the under surface may be papillose. Cho, Y., Kwon, O. The flowers once mature are used in dried flower arranging. Furthermore, it’s not typically as prolific of a weed as dandelion— at least not in urban areas. The yellowish root notwithstanding, the signature color of Rumex crispus, in the eyes of many students of wild plants, is brown. This curious plant belongs to the buckwheat family, which is identified by the nodes that punctuate the plants' stems (an even clearer example being those found onÂ Japanese knotweed). Wild Dock Wild Onions Wild Rice Wild Wheat Wood Ear Mushroom Wood Sorrel Yaupon. It can … Dock plants are persistent perennials, which means you can forage it throughout the year. The calyx of the ripe fruit is helpful (and often necessary) to identify the plant. It is in the same genus as another weed commonly found in North America, sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella). For the same reason, while the leaves are edible, it is best to avoid eating them in large quantities. It usually requires the presence of the perianth for species identification but this is usually removed during processing in commercial grain lots. It is native to Europe, but is found on all temperate continents. This alternate common name is also sometimes given as "curled dock"; the species name, crispus is Latin for "curly.". For some species in the Full Key you will need to measure the length of the pedicel. The stem leaves are alternate and are narrowly ovateâlanceolate. Many weeds are obscure plants that are easy to miss, but yellow dock is a weed that stands out. Rumex obtusifolius, commonly known as bitter dock, broad-leaved dock, bluntleaf dock, dock leaf or butter dock, is a perennial plant in the family Polygonaceae. It is a member of the Polygonaceae (buckwheat or dock) family. R. crispusas the name suggests has wavy, curled leaf edges with wedge-shaped leaves. For A. rumicis research, this host plant is generally targeted because it is found highly within the moth's range. One of the best survival greens is wild dock. The tap root can be up to 90cm (3ft) in length. The bottom leaves can be quite long, ranging from 1/2 foot to 1 foot in length. The leaves are fairly thick and the stems can get a tinge of red, especially in cold weather. New York. Ecological and morphological characteristics of the endoparasitoids of larval, "Home remedies: dock leaves for nettle stings", "List of Invasive species in the Great Lakes Great Lakes United / Union Saint-Laurent Grands Lacs", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rumex_obtusifolius&oldid=988538738, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from September 2019, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 13 November 2020, at 20:03. ---Description--- It is a large and spreading plant, its stout stems 2 to 3 feet high, the leaves 6 to 12 inches long, with rather slender foot-stalks, the margins waved and the end or apex of the leaf rounded. Below is a list of wild edible plants that you can use when living off the land. Plant taxonomy classifies yellow dock as Rumex crispus. The distinct flower head of the plant that remains after the blooms have dried and turned brown is helpful for the identification of yellow dock. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board. They can be eaten either raw (when young and tender) or steamed. But it is mainly the plant's root, rather than its leaves, that has been used in folk medicine.  It is a highly invasive species in some zones, resulting from its abundant seed dispersal, adaptability to reproduce, aggressive roots, ability to tolerate extreme climates, and hardiness. Despite its medicinal qualities, Rumex crispus is listed as a plant poisonous to dogs by the ASPCA. Image courtesy of the Jack Harper slide collection. , Rumex obtusifolius is a major host plant for many different insects as well, including the Acronicta rumicis moth.  It has been an invasive species of the Great Lakes region of North America where it was first sighted in 1840. The condition of the ocrea can be a good indicator of how tender and tasty that dock plant is. Dock, Rumex crispus, appears in the garden in large spreading groups, and is characterised by coarse, battered leaves. The root grows large and deep, and it can be harvested for potent herbal medicine anytime. Click on a place name to get a complete noxious weed list for that location, or click here for a composite list of all Federal and State Noxious Weeds . You have to love the texture of this dried flower spike: If you grab the coarse brown spike and slide your hand along it, you will come away with a handful of small, crispy flakes (the seeds and dried sepals). 2004.  Seedlings can be identified by the oval leaves with red stems and rolled leaves sprouting from the center of the plant. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. Another aid in identifying this weed is its height. Vibrant Green Backlit Dock Leaves (Rumex obtusifolius L.) Growing by a Field. It often tolerates poor, disturbed soils and is frequently found along roadsides, although it prefers to grow in rich, loamy soils in full sun and with adequate water. In Romania, the leaves are sometimes used as an alternative to other plants in the making of sarmale. The perianth-segments are in two whorls of three. But it is easy to tell the two apart: True to its name, the broadleaf type has bottom, or "basal" leaves that are very wide (4 inches across, versus 1 inch across for yellow dock plants). The seeds produced are dry and reddish brown. In the spring, the greens are edible and in the fall the plant produces buckwheat like grain that can be ground into wild foraged flour. It is considered a broadleaf, perennial "weed," "wildflower," or "herb," depending on your perspective. It is easy to identify, and the reasons for bothering to identify it include that it is: Plant taxonomy classifies yellow dock as Rumex crispus.  In the UK, the invertebrate herbivore species is a leaf beetle, Gastrophysa viridula. One of the best identification features for docks is a small, thin sheath that covers the base of each dock leaf.  Rumex was Pliny's name for sorrel, while obtusifolius means 'obtuse-leaved' (obtuse + foliage). Each page contains identification information, which parts are edible and how to prepare them for safe consumption. The pedicels are jointed; include both … Once you are able to use this feature to identify it as yellow dock, you will never forget this plant. The leaves of most dock plants are long and narrow, and the plants are most easily identified by their distinctive seed stalks. Several plant varieties produce Psyllium, but plantain is a rich source of the compound and the easiest to find and identify in most regions. This makes curly dock one of the easier plants for beginners to identify. "The Names of Plants". , In George Eliot's Adam Bede, set in the early 19th century, broad dock leaves were used to wrap farmhouse butter. Even the folks over at the United States Food and Drug Administration are willing to admit the value of Psyllium – something they rarely do when referencing either wild or cultivated herbs. & Nam, S.-H., 2006. Curly dock, a perennial broadleaf plant, usually grows in wet areas and is frequently associated with overwatering or standing water in low areas. The inflorescence consists of large clusters of racemes which contain small greenish flowers that change to red as they mature. Flowers. , Rumex crispus - curly dock - is similar in appearance, but with thinner and wave-like leaves. If your skin has ever brushed up against stinging nettles (Urtica dioica) while you were working in the garden, you know about the burning sensation caused by their spines, followed by an itchy rash. , In the United Kingdom, the plant is often found growing near stinging nettles and there is a widely held belief that the underside of the dock leaf, squeezed to extract a little juice, can be rubbed on the skin to counteract the itching caused by brushing against a nettle plant. This curious plant belongs to the buckwheat family, which is identified by the nodes that punctuate the plants' stems (an even clearer example being those found on Japanese knotweed). Genus Rumex falls into the Polygonaceae. This plant has a long taproot that enables it survive long drought periods and out competes other vegetation. 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